Geotechnical engineering is a discipline that involves the use of earth materials and geologic processes to solve problems in the earth. The goals of geotechnical engineering are to protect human life and property from natural hazards, to develop methods for predicting those hazards and their effects, and to design structures that can withstand those hazards. It is also used in the construction industry to protect the building structure from ground motion caused by earthquakes.
The term “geotechnical engineer” refers to an engineer who uses geology as a tool for solving problems in civil engineering, mechanical engineering, and related fields. The geotechnical engineering Calgary section is the first step in a project. The geotechnical engineer inspects the site, prepares a report, and makes recommendations on how to proceed with the project. Geotechnical engineers must understand the physical properties of soils, rock formations, groundwater conditions, etc., and be able to apply these properties to develop effective solutions to problems.
Geotechnical engineers have a variety of specializations within this field:
Construction Geology – This specialty focuses on determining the types and quantities of rocks present at a site, as well as their location relative to other soil conditions or structures. The engineer will also identify existing foundations at the site and determine whether or not they are stable enough to support future loads.
Geomorphology – This specialty looks at the flow of water through rivers, streams, lakes and oceans. Engineers who specialize in geomorphology are often called hydrogeologists because they study how water affects landforms. They work closely with civil engineers and architects to investigate how water affects buildings as well as roads, bridges and other infrastructure built upon it.
The primary focus of geotechnical engineers are on the following:
Soil classification – determining whether soil is suitable for a project or not. This is done by sampling the soil, recording its properties and quantifying the geotechnical parameters that affect its strength (e.g., particle size distribution).
Soil testing – using instrumentation to determine whether a specific site meets design requirements for load capacity or settlement resistance. If a site does not meet these requirements, it can be re-located or modified to do so before construction begins.
Rock mechanics – determining how hard a specific rock face will be when subjected to external forces such as excavation or loading from structures above it, as well as internal forces such as groundwater movement through cracks in rocks or faults.
Phase 1 ESA
The Phase 1 ESA provides a preliminary assessment of whether a proposed project would have a significant effect on the environment and provides information about how to minimize those effects. The purpose of the Phase 1 ESA is to provide information that will help determine if additional studies are needed to address specific issues related to the proposed project or activity.
The Phase 1 ESA will generally include:
- Survey and mapping of the site and surrounding area.
- Identification of existing environmental hazards, including all significant natural resources (e.g., wetlands, streams).
- Examination of soils, rock and soil subgrade conditions (including slope stability) along with any other geotechnical features that may affect site conditions (e.g., footings).
- Identification of existing utilities and services at the site and their impact on the environment and adjacent properties. Therefore, it is important for you to provide accurate location information for all facilities in your proposed development plan.
- Examining your medical records, and providing a report that details why you are eligible for the ESA.
ESA Phase 1 is a very useful tool to understand how a structure reacts to earthquakes. It can also help engineers to make sure that the structure has been designed safely. However, the ESA Phase 1 does not have any predictive power, which means it cannot be used for planning purposes or for predicting future earthquakes.