Quick Introduction To Interferon-Alpha 2 (IFNα 2)

TNFα, tumor necrosis factor alpha, is a human cytokine associated with systemic inflammation and an integral component of the acute phase reaction. Primarily activated macrophages produce TNFα, but other cells such as natural killer cells, mast cells, T-helper cells, eosinophils and neutrophils can also produce TNFα. These cells produce TNF-alpha as a stable 233 amino acid long homotrimer protein from which a metalloprotease cleaves and releases a soluble homotrimeric cytokine. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a cytokine that plays an important role in immune and inflammatory responses. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha homotrimer is primarily produced by macrophages, whereas other cell types such as natural killer cells, mast cells, T helper cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils can also produce this protein. In addition to being an endogenous pyrogen, tumor necrosis factor-alpha can also induce fever and apoptosis.

Define tumor necrosis factor: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFα is a human cytokine associated with systemic inflammation and is an integral component of the acute phase reaction. Primarily, activated macrophages produce TNFα, but other cell types such as natural killer cells, mast cells, T helper cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils can also produce TNFα. These cells produce TNFα as a stable 233 amino acid long homotrimer protein, from which a metalloprotease, TNFα-converting enzyme proteolytically cleaves and releases a soluble homotrimeric cytokine. TNFα-alpha, also known as cachectin, is a member of the TNF superfamily. It is a proinflammatory cytokine that was originally discovered to induce cachexia (i.e., severe body wasting) in mice injected with Gram-negative bacteria, particularly when they were administered cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).

In 1957,Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann first described interferons as a viral replication interfering agent. Type I interferon family has 13 α subtypes, out of which IFNα 2 was the very first subtypes scientists had successfully characterized in the 1980s. Therefore, researchers have widely studied IFNα 2 and the alpha interferon function to understand type I interferon family structure and mechanisms. As a result, the pharmaceutical industry also produced IFNα 2 as the first interferon drug, making it a well-known type I IFN family subtype. When under viral infection, cells need to be activated against the virus. To activate them, cells release interferon-alpha 2 into their surroundings for other cells to read. In 1957, Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann first described IFNs as a viral replication interfering agent. Type I IFN family has 13 α subtypes, out of which IFNα 2 was the very first subtypes scientists had successfully characterized in the 1980s. Therefore, researchers have widely studied IFNα 2 and the alpha interferon function to understand type I IFN family structure and mechanisms. As a result, the pharmaceutical industry also produced IFNα 2 as the first IFN drug.

IFN alpha 2, also known as type I interferons, are secreted by cells in response to viruses, parasites and other invading organisms. Thirteen different types of IFN are now known, most of which have been cloned. The one with greatest clinical relevance is IFN-alpha2 (LeIF). The name IFN alpha2 is used here because it was the first in this cytokine family to be characterized and developed into a drug product.